Local Name : Meniran (Javanese)
Latin Name : Phyllanthus Niruri
Foreign Name : Zhen zhu cao (Chinese), Small Gooseberry (English), Bhui amla bhuamalaki (India), Sampasamplukan (Philippine), Chanca Piedra (Spanish), Stonebreaker (English)

Purpose : in Philippine, Meniran extract usually used for fish poison. The poisonous compound is originate from alkaloida group : 4-metoksi-norsekurinin and ent-norsekurinin

Part used for herbal remedies : the whole plant

Herbal effect : Meniran is diuretic, anti-inflammatory, liver protector, antipyretic and stamina guard

Active Compounds
Medicinal Plants Meniran very rich in various chemical content, among others: phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, niranthin, nirtetrali, nirurin, nirurinetin, norsecurinine, phyllanthenol, phyllnirurin, phylltetrin, quercitrin, quercetin, ricinoleic acid, rutin, salicylic acid methyl ester, garlic acid, ascorbic acid, hinokinin, hydroxy niranthin, isolintetralin, and isoquercetin.

Other compounds contained in Meniran is beta-d-xylopyranoside and beta-sitosteroy. Another compound that was discovered is Seco-4-hidroksilintetralin, Seco-isoarisiresinol trimethyl ether, hidroksinirantin, dibenzilbutirolakton, nirfilin, and neolignan.

Meniran roots and leaves are rich in flavonoids among others phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, qeurcetrin, isoquercetin, astragalin, and rutin. Its seed oil contains several fatty acids such as ricinoleat acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid.

Scientific Evidence
There are many benefits we can get from Medicinal Plants Meniran for our health. However, for pregnant women, use of Meniran not recommended as it can cause abortion.

Patients with acute renal disorders are also prohibited from using Meniran as a drug. In addition, the use of Meniran in the long term may cause erectile dysfunction and kidney failure.

Meniran leaf methanol extract had the highest antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia colli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This effect is due to the antibacterial compound on Meniran like phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, niranthin, and nietetralin. Petroleum ether extract of the stems, leaves and roots Meniran also showed antifungal effects.

Uric acid and kidney stones solvent
The content of  flavonoids  and flavonoid glycosides are the compounds most frequently used in the treatment of  gout and kidney stones. Therefore, Meniran flavonid-rich compounds, can be used to treat gout and kidney stones.

In the body, flavonoids bind with calcium from kidney stones then form a complex compound which easily soluble brown. Ions Na and K in Meniran would bind to uric acid salt forming compounds that easily dissolve in  water  so that has been crystallized  uric acid in the blood and the kidneys will slowly dissolve and then be excreted in the urine.

Meniran also is a diuretic (helping discharge of urine). That way, Meniran used to treat gout and kidney stones  or other illnesses caused by uric acid, such as rheumatic gout.

Recent studies have revealed that Meniran immunomodulator activity. Immunomodulator role to make the system more active body of their duties, including strengthening the immune system. If the immune system increases, the body resistance against various bacteria and viruses also increases.

The immune system works with 3 ways. First, blocking the entry of bacteria and viruses into the body. Second, if bacteria and viruses made it into the body, the immune system will detect it and make the process of  elimination  before  the bacteria and viruses multiply and cause disease. Third, if bacteria and viruses breed already, then the immune system will eliminate them.

The results showed that the Meniran extract can modulate the immune system  through the  proliferation  (spread) and the activation of T and B lymphocytes , if our natural immune system resistance is insufficient. T and B lymphocytes to work according to the  type of  attack  viruses and  bacteria  that occur. In addition, Meniran also serves to activate  phagocytic cells such as monocytes  and macrophages  are responsible for providing a piece of pathogens (disease-causing biological agents) to T cells so that the pathogen  can be identified and killed.

Because the character of immunomodulator, Meniran can be used to strengthen the immune system against bacteria, viruses, and microbes that cause disease in order to prevent various diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, or microbes.

Ability Meniran as immunostimulator help stimulate the activity of natural killer cells (NK) and killer cells  (K). If the toxicity of both cells increased, cells that have mutations and abnormal (cancer cells) will be destroyed by both.

Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin is a major component that allegedly played an active role in decreasing blood sugar levels. This is shown by the results of a study of mice that have been induced alloxan (a chemical that is given to trigger the condition of diabetes in experimental animals). Apparently, mice given Meniran extract decreased blood sugar levels. Meniran proven role as an antidiabetic.

The results showed that Meniran also serves as hepatoprotector. A group of mice injected with carbon tetrachloride (substance induced hepatotoxic). Apparently, to which water is boiled Meniran improved liver organ. Meniran antihepatotoksik containing compounds such as filantin, hipofilantin, triakontanal, and trikontanol.he

In addition, Phyllanthus compound in Meniran also known to work as a protector of the liver (hepatoprotector) by sabotaging the DNA polymerase (an enzyme needed for replication of hepatitis virus / replicate). In a study in India, 59% of patients suffering from hepatitis B infection showed decreased levels of HBV infection after eating Meniran for 1 month.


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